UNIX/LINUX Command – rsync


rsync – a fast, versatile, remote (and local) file-copying tool

rsync Command SYNOPSIS

Local: rsync [OPTION…] SRC… [DEST]

Access via remote shell:
Pull: rsync [OPTION…] [USER@]HOST:SRC… [DEST]

Access via rsync daemon:
Pull: rsync [OPTION…] [USER@]HOST::SRC… [DEST]
rsync [OPTION…] rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC… [DEST]
Push: rsync [OPTION…] SRC… [USER@]HOST::DEST
rsync [OPTION…] SRC… rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST

Usages with just one SRC arg and no DEST arg will list the source files instead of copying.

rsync Command DESCRIPTION

Rsync is a fast and extraordinarily versatile file copying tool. It can copy locally, to/from another host over any remote shell, or to/from a remote rsync daemon. It offers a large number of options that control every aspect of its behavior and permit very flexible specification of the set of files to be copied. It is famous for its delta-transfer algorithm, which reduces the amount of data sent over the network by sending only the differences between the source files and the existing files in the destination. Rsync is widely used for backups and mirroring and as an improved copy command for everyday use.

Rsync finds files that need to be transferred using a “quick check” algorithm (by default) that looks for files that have changed in size or in last-modified time. Any changes in the other preserved attributes (as requested by options) are made on the destination file directly when the quick check indicates that the file’s data does not need to be updated.

rsync Command OPTIONS

Options Description
-v–verbose increase verbosity
-q–quiet suppress non-error messages
–no-motd suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see caveat)
-c–checksum skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
-a–archive archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
–no-OPTION turn off an implied OPTION (e.g., –no-D)
-r–recursive recurse into directories
-R–relative use relative path names
–no-implied-dirs don’t send implied dirs with –relative
-b, –backup make backups (see –suffix & –backup-dir)
–backup-dir=DIR make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
–suffix=SUFFIX backup suffix (default ~ w/o –backup-dir)
-u–update skip files that are newer on the receiver
–inplace update destination files in-place
–append append data onto shorter files
–append-verify –append w/old data in file checksum
-d–dirs transfer directories without recursing
-l–links copy symlinks as symlinks
-L–copy-links transform symlink into referent file/dir
–copy-unsafe-links only “unsafe” symlinks are transformed
–safe-links ignore symlinks that point outside the tree
-k–copy-dirlinks transform symlink to dir into referent dir
-K–keep-dirlinks treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
-H–hard-links preserve hard links
-p–perms preserve permissions
-E–executability preserve executability
–chmod=CHMOD affect file and/or directory permissions
-A–acls preserve ACLs (implies -p)
-X–xattrs preserve extended attributes
-o–owner preserve owner (super-user only)
-g–group preserve group
–devices preserve device files (super-user only)
–specials preserve special files
-D same as –devices –specials
-t–times preserve modification times
-O–omit-dir-times omit directories from –times
–super receiver attempts super-user activities
–fake-super store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
-S, –sparse handle sparse files efficiently
-n–dry-run perform a trial run with no changes made
-W–whole-file copy files whole (w/o delta-xfer algorithm)
-x–one-file-system don’t cross filesystem boundaries
-B–block-size=SIZE force a fixed checksum block-size
-e–rsh=COMMAND specify the remote shell to use
–rsync-path=PROGRAM specify the rsync to run on remote machine
–existing skip creating new files on receiver
–ignore-existing skip updating files that exist on receiver
–remove-source-files sender removes synchronized files (non-dir)
–del an alias for –delete-during
–delete delete extraneous files from dest dirs
–delete-before receiver deletes before transfer, not during
–delete-during receiver deletes during the transfer
–delete-delay find deletions during, delete after
–delete-after receiver deletes after transfer, not during
–delete-excluded also delete excluded files from dest dirs
–ignore-errors delete even if there are I/O errors
–force force deletion of dirs even if not empty
–max-delete=NUM don’t delete more than NUM files
–max-size=SIZE don’t transfer any file larger than SIZE
–min-size=SIZE don’t transfer any file smaller than SIZE
–partial keep partially transferred files
–partial-dir=DIR put a partially transferred file into DIR
–delay-updates put all updated files into place at end
-m–prune-empty-dirs prune empty directory chains from file-list
–numeric-ids don’t map uid/gid values by user/group name
–timeout=SECONDS set I/O timeout in seconds
–contimeout=SECONDS set daemon connection timeout in seconds
-I–ignore-times don’t skip files that match size and time
–size-only skip files that match in size
–modify-window=NUM compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
-T–temp-dir=DIR create temporary files in directory DIR
-y–fuzzy find similar file for basis if no dest file
–compare-dest=DIR also compare received files relative to DIR
–copy-dest=DIR … and include copies of unchanged files
–link-dest=DIR hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
-z–compress compress file data during the transfer
–compress-level=NUM explicitly set compression level
–skip-compress=LIST skip compressing files with suffix in LIST
-C–cvs-exclude auto-ignore files in the same way CVS does
-f–filter=RULE add a file-filtering RULE

same as –filter=’dir-merge /.rsync-filter’

repeated: –filter=’- .rsync-filter’

–exclude=PATTERN exclude files matching PATTERN
–exclude-from=FILE read exclude patterns from FILE
–include=PATTERN don’t exclude files matching PATTERN
–include-from=FILE read include patterns from FILE
–files-from=FILE read list of source-file names from FILE
-0–from0 all *from/filter files are delimited by 0s
-s–protect-args no space-splitting; wildcard chars only
–address=ADDRESS bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
–port=PORT specify double-colon alternate port number
–sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
–blocking-io use blocking I/O for the remote shell
–stats give some file-transfer stats
-8–8-bit-output leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
-h–human-readable output numbers in a human-readable format
–progress show progress during transfer
-P same as –partial –progress
-i, –itemize-changes output a change-summary for all updates
–out-format=FORMAT output updates using the specified FORMAT
–log-file=FILE log what we’re doing to the specified FILE
–log-file-format=FMT log updates using the specified FMT
–password-file=FILE read daemon-access password from FILE
–list-only list the files instead of copying them
–bwlimit=KBPS limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
–write-batch=FILE write a batched update to FILE
–only-write-batch=FILE like –write-batch but w/o updating dest
–read-batch=FILE read a batched update from FILE
–protocol=NUM force an older protocol version to be used
–iconv=CONVERT_SPEC request charset conversion of file names
–checksum-seed=NUM set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
-4–ipv4 prefer IPv4
-6–ipv6 prefer IPv6
–version print version number
-h–help show help

rsync can also be run as a daemon, in which case the following options are accepted:

–daemon run as an rsync daemon
–address=ADDRESS bind to the specified address
–bwlimit=KBPS limit I/O bandwidth; KBytes per second
–config=FILE specify alternate rsyncd.conf file
–no-detach do not detach from the parent
–port=PORT listen on alternate port number
–log-file=FILE override the “log file” setting
–log-file-format=FMT override the “log format” setting
–sockopts=OPTIONS specify custom TCP options
-v–verbose increase verbosity
-4–ipv4 prefer IPv4
-6–ipv6 prefer IPv6
-h–help show this help (if used after –daemon)


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