NAME
hexdump—ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump

SYNOPSIS
hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] [file …]

DESCRIPTION
The hexdump utility is a filter that displays the specified files, or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user-specified format.
The options are as follows:

Options Description
-b One-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen spaceseparated, three-column, zero-filled bytes of input data, in octal, per line.
-c One-byte character display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen spaceseparated, three-column, space-filled, characters of input data per line.
-d Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight spaceseparated, five-column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data, in unsigned decimal, per line.
-e format_string Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.
-f format_file Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Empty lines and lines whose first nonblank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored.
-n length Interpret only length bytes of input.
-o Two-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, six-column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in octal, per line.
-s offset Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. By default, offset is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an octal number. Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.
-v The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. Without the -v option, any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk.
-x Two-byte hexadecimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight, space separated, four-column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in hexadecimal, per line.

For each input file, hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options, in the order that they were specified.

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