hexdump—ASCII, decimal, hexadecimal, octal dump
hexdump [-bcdovx] [-e format_string] [-f format_file] [-n length] [-s skip] [file …]
The hexdump utility is a filter that displays the specified files, or the standard input, if no files are specified, in a user-specified format.
The options are as follows:
|-b||One-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen spaceseparated, three-column, zero-filled bytes of input data, in octal, per line.|
|-c||One-byte character display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by sixteen spaceseparated, three-column, space-filled, characters of input data per line.|
|-d||Two-byte decimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight spaceseparated, five-column, zero-filled, two-byte units of input data, in unsigned decimal, per line.|
|-e format_string||Specify a format string to be used for displaying data.|
|-f format_file||Specify a file that contains one or more newline separated format strings. Empty lines and lines whose first nonblank character is a hash mark (#) are ignored.|
|-n length||Interpret only length bytes of input.|
|-o||Two-byte octal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight space-separated, six-column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in octal, per line.|
|-s offset||Skip offset bytes from the beginning of the input. By default, offset is interpreted as a decimal number. With a leading 0x or 0X, offset is interpreted as a hexadecimal number; otherwise, with a leading 0, offset is interpreted as an octal number. Appending the character b, k, or m to offset causes it to be interpreted as a multiple of 512, 1024, or 1048576, respectively.|
|-v||The -v option causes hexdump to display all input data. Without the -v option, any number of groups of output lines, which would be identical to the immediately preceding group of output lines (except for the input offsets), are replaced with a line comprised of a single asterisk.|
|-x||Two-byte hexadecimal display. Display the input offset in hexadecimal, followed by eight, space separated, four-column, zero-filled, two-byte quantities of input data, in hexadecimal, per line.|
For each input file, hexdump sequentially copies the input to standard output, transforming the data according to the format strings specified by the -e and -f options, in the order that they were specified.