fuser—Identify processes using files

fuser [–a|–s][–signal][–kmuv] filename … [–][–signal][–kmuv] filename …
fuser [–l]

fuser displays the PIDs of processes using the specified files or file systems. In the default display mode, each filename is followed by a letter denoting the type of access:
c            Current directory.
e            Executable being run.
f             Open file. f is omitted in default display mode.
r             Root directory.
m           mmap’ed file or shared library.
fuser returns a nonzero return code if none of the specified files is accessed or in case of a fatal error. If at least one access has been found, fuser returns zero.


Options Description
–a Show all files specified on the command line. By default, only files that are accessed by at least one process are shown.
–k Kill processes accessing the file. Unless changed with -signal, SIGKILL is sent. A fuser process never kills itself, but may kill other fuser processes.
u List all known signal names.
–m filename specifies a file on a mounted file system or a block device that is mounted. All processes accessing files on that file system are listed. If a directory file is specified, it is automatically changed to filename/. to use any file system that might be mounted on that directory.
–s Silent operation. –a, –u, and –v are ignored in this mode.
–signal Use the specified signal instead of SIGKILL when killing processes. Signals can be specified either by name (for example, –HUP) or by number (for example, –1).
–u Append the username of the process owner to each PID.
–v Verbose mode. Processes are shown in a ps-like style. The fields PID, USER, and COMMAND are similar to ps.
ACCESS shows how the process accesses the file.
Reset all options and set the signal back to SIGKILL.

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