Python Scripting Tutorial


Welcome to our comprehensive Python tutorial, where we dive into the world of Python programming and guide you through the process of learning this versatile and powerful language. Python is a high-level, interpreted language known for its simplicity, readability, and vast range of applications, making it a favorite among beginners and experienced programmers alike.

What You’ll Learn

In this tutorial, we cover the following key aspects of Python:

Introduction to Python: Gain a solid understanding of Python’s history, features, and the reasons why it has become one of the most popular programming languages today. Learn about Python’s philosophy of code readability, its extensive standard library, and the thriving Python community.

Installing Python: Follow step-by-step instructions to install Python on your system or server. Understand the different versions of Python and the available options for installation, including package managers and integrated development environments (IDEs). Learn how to set up your development environment for Python.

Python Syntax and Basic Concepts: Dive into the fundamentals of Python syntax and basic concepts. Learn about variables, data types, operators, control flow statements (if-else, loops), functions, and modules. Understand how to write clean and efficient Python code using best practices and coding conventions.

Data Structures: Explore Python’s built-in data structures, including lists, tuples, dictionaries, and sets. Learn how to manipulate and iterate over these data structures, perform common operations, and leverage their unique features. Understand when and how to choose the appropriate data structure for your application needs.

File Handling and Input/Output: Learn how to read from and write to files using Python’s file handling capabilities. Understand how to open, read, write, and close files. Explore techniques for processing text and binary data, working with CSV and JSON files, and handling exceptions during file operations.

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): Discover the principles of object-oriented programming and how they apply to Python. Learn about classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Understand how to design and implement object-oriented solutions using Python’s OOP features.

Python Modules and Packages: Explore Python’s module system and package management. Learn how to organize your code into reusable modules and packages for better code organization and modularity. Understand how to import and use external modules and explore popular Python libraries for various domains.

Python Standard Library: Discover the extensive Python Standard Library, which provides a wide range of modules for tasks such as working with dates and times, network communication, data serialization, regular expressions, and more. Learn how to leverage these modules to speed up your development process.

Error Handling and Exceptions: Understand how to handle errors and exceptions in Python. Learn about the try-except-else-finally construct to gracefully handle and recover from exceptions. Explore techniques for logging and debugging to troubleshoot issues in your Python programs.

Python for Web Development, Data Science, and Automation: Explore Python’s versatility and its applications in web development, data science, and automation. Learn about popular frameworks and libraries such as Django, Flask, NumPy, pandas, and more. Understand how to use Python for web development, data analysis, machine learning, and task automation.

Throughout this tutorial, we provide practical examples, code snippets, and exercises to help you grasp Python’s concepts and master the language. We aim to empower you with the knowledge and skills to become a proficient Python programmer, enabling you to build a wide range of applications and solve real-world problems.


Chapter 1 : Getting Started with Python Programming

In this section you will learn about getting started with Python programming.

You will see what is Python? What is it used for? How do you install Python? How do you use Python?

TopicsRead Time
Introduction to Python
Setting Up the Python Environment
Your First Python Program
Python Syntax and Indentation
Understanding Python Variables and Data Types
Basic Python Operators
Python Interactive Shell vs Script Mode
Python Basic Topics

Chapter 2 : Python Fundamentals

This section introduces you to the fundamentals of Python programming.

Here you will learn about syntax, number, string, variables, data types, constant, Booleans, comments, type conversion, Operators, etc.

TopicsRead Time
Python Data Types Detailed
Working with Strings
Basic Number Operations
Understanding Boolean Logic in Python
Python Input and Output
Basic Error Handling
Topics on Python Fundamentals

Chapter 3 : Python – Control Flow

Control flow is one of the most important aspects of any programming language.

In Python, control flow is handled by if-else statements, while loops, for loops, break, continue, return, pass, raise, try, except, finally, yield, and more.

TopicsRead Time
Understanding If, Elif, and Else
Using For Loops in Python
Mastering While Loops
Break and Continue Statements
Nested Loops and Loop Control
Topics related to Python Control flow

Chapter 4 : Python – Functions

Functions are blocks of code that can be reused across different parts of your program. They are also known as subroutines or methods. 

In this section, you will learn everything about python functions, How to create?, How to use?, etc.

TopicsRead Time
Defining and Calling Functions
Arguments and Return Values
Default and Keyword Arguments
Variable Scope and Lifetime
Lambda Functions
Understanding Iterators and Generators
Topics to learn Python Functions

Chapter 5 : Python – Lists & Directories

Lists are containers which store elements. The elements stored in lists may be strings, numbers, tuples, dictionaries, sets, etc. 

You will learn all about list operations like append(), insert(), remove(), sort(), reverse(), find() and many others. 

Also, you will learn about directories and their usage.

TopicsRead Time
Working with Lists
List Comprehensions
Introduction to Dictionaries
Dictionary Comprehensions
Iterating over Lists and Dictionaries
Topic on Python List and Directories

Chapter 6 : Python – Sets

Sets are collections of unique items. They are similar to arrays but they don’t have fixed size. 

You will understand set operations like union(), intersection(), difference(), symmetric difference(), complement(), power set(), etc. 

Also, you will learn about set comprehension.

TopicsRead Time
Understanding Sets
Set Operations and Methods
Introduction to Tuples
Comparing Lists, Sets, and Tuples
Topics for Python sets

Chapter 7 : Python – Exception Handling

Exceptions are errors that occur during execution of programs. These errors are usually caused due to bugs in the code. 

You will know about exceptions like TypeError, NameError, IndexError, ValueError, OverflowError, ArithmeticError, MemoryError, SyntaxError, IndentationError, UnicodeEncodeError, UnicodeDecodeError, AttributeError, IOError, EOFError, EnvironmentError, ImportError, SystemExit, GeneratorExit, KeyboardInterrupt, RuntimeError, and so on. 

You will also learn how to handle these exceptions using try/except statement.

TopicsRead Time
Basics of Exception Handling
The Try-Except Block
Handling Multiple Exceptions
The Finally Clause
Creating Custom Exceptions
Python Exception Handling topics

Chapter 8 : Python – Working with Files

Working with files is very easy in Python. It has built-in support for reading and writing text files. Also, there are modules available to read binary files.

You will get to know about file handling operations like open(), close(), write(), read(), seek(), tell(), truncate(), flush(), close(), etc.

TopicsRead Time
Reading and Writing Files
Working with Different File Formats (Text, CSV, JSON)
File Handling Best Practices
Understanding File Paths and Directories
Advanced File Operations
Topics to know handle files with Python

Chapter 9 : Python OOP – Classes and Objects

Object oriented programming (OOP) is a paradigm where objects interact with each other through inheritance and polymorphism.

You will learn classes and objects in Python. You will learn about object creation, attributes, methods, class hierarchy, superclass and subclass relationship, etc. 

TopicsRead Time
Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming
Defining Classes and Objects
Understanding the Constructor (__init__ Method)
Instance Methods and Attributes
Class Methods and Static Methods
Topics on Python OOP classes and objects

Chapter 10 : Python OOP – Special Methods and Property

Special methods and properties are used to access private members of an object. 

You will see special methods like __init__(), __repr__(), __str__(), __add__(), __sub__(), __mul__(), __div__(), __truediv__(), __floordiv__(), __mod__(), __pow__(), __and__(), __or__(), __xor__(), __pos__(), __neg__(), __nonzero__(), __len__(), __getitem__(), __setitem__(), __delitem__(), __contains__(), __iter__(), __eq__(), __ne__(), __lt__(), __gt__(), __le__(), __ge__(), __cmp__(), __hash__(), __reduce__(), __format__(), __dir__(), __doc__(), __name__(), __package__(), __module__(), __loader__(), __annotations__(), __dict__(), __weakref__(). 

You will also learn property related topics like attribute lookup, descriptor protocol, property decorator, etc.

TopicsRead Time
Special (Magic/Dunder) Methods
The __str__ and __repr__ Methods
Property Decorators – Getters and Setters
Using __call__ and __getattr__
Operator Overloading
Topics on Python’s OOP methods

Chapter 11 : Python OOP – Inheritance and Enumeration

Inheritance is one of the most important concepts in OOP. In this section, you will learn about inheritance in Python. You will also learn about enumeration.

You will be able to create your own classes by inheriting from existing ones. You will also learn how to use multiple inheritance.

TopicsRead Time
Understanding Inheritance
Base Classes and Derived Classes
Method Overriding
Multiple Inheritance and the Diamond Problem
Understanding Polymorphism
Python’s topics on Inheritance and Enumeration

Chapter 12 : Python OOP – Descriptor, Metaprogramming, and Exceptions

Descriptors are used to define custom behavior for a class or instance. They can be defined at class level or instance level.

Metaprogramming is the process of creating new functionality without modifying source code. This is done by manipulating program data structures instead of their representation.

You will be introduced to metaclasses and descriptors in Python. You will be taught about exception handling in Python.

TopicsRead Time
Using Descriptors
Introduction to Metaprogramming
Metaclasses and Their Use Cases
Advanced Exception Handling Techniques
Custom Exception Classes
Topics on Python’s OOP Descriptor

Chapter 13 : Python for Advance Programmer

In this section you will learn advance techniques and methods in python to become an advance programmer.

You will learn advanced features of python such as generators, list comprehensions, generator expressions, map() function, filter() function, reduce() function, zip() function, iter tools module, lambda functions, operator overloading, dynamic typing, duck typing, etc.

You will understand how to use them effectively in real world applications.

TopicsRead Time
Advanced List and Dictionary Comprehensions
Decorators and Higher-Order Functions
Context Managers and the with Statement
The itertools and functools Modules
Coroutines and Async Programming
Python’s topics for advanced programmers

Chapter 14 : Python Regex

Regex is a powerful tool that helps us to find patterns in strings. It is very useful when we need to search for patterns in text files or web pages.

You will get to know about regular expression syntax, different types of regex engines, basic usage of re module, using re.compile() method, matching groups, capturing groups, named groups, lookahead assertions, lookbehind assertions, quantifiers, back references, character sets, Unicode support, etc.

This section will help you to write robust and efficient programs.

TopicsRead Time
Introduction to Regular Expressions
Basic Patterns and Character Classes
Grouping and Capturing
Advanced Regex Features
Practical Use Cases of Regex in Python
Python topics of regex handling

Chapter 15 : Python Unit Testing

Unit testing is a technique which allows us to test individual units of our software independently. You can run unit tests on each file separately.

You can execute unit tests with various parameters and assert if they pass or fail.

You will learn about unit test module, nose framework, pytest framework, mock objects, patch object, etc.

TopicsRead Time
Introduction to Unit Testing in Python
Writing Test Cases using unittest
Test Case Organization and Execution
Introduction to pytest
Mocking and Patching in Tests
Topics for Python unit testing

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

What is Python and why should I learn it?

Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It’s versatile, widely used in various fields like web development, data science, artificial intelligence, and more. Learning Python opens up numerous opportunities in the tech industry.

Do I need any prior programming experience to start learning Python?

What software do I need to start coding in Python?

Is Python free to use?

Can Python be used for web development?

How is Python used in data science?

What are the differences between Python 2 and Python 3?

How long will it take to learn Python?

What is a Python library?

What is object-oriented programming (OOP) in Python?

Are there any online communities or forums for Python learners?

What are decorators in Python?

Can I build mobile apps with Python?

What is a Python framework?

How do I keep up with Python updates and news?

Is Python suitable for building large-scale applications?

What are Python’s limitations?

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