Welcome to our comprehensive Python tutorial, where we dive into the world of Python programming and guide you through the process of learning this versatile and powerful language. Python is a high-level, interpreted language known for its simplicity, readability, and vast range of applications, making it a favorite among beginners and experienced programmers alike.
What You’ll Learn
In this tutorial, we cover the following key aspects of Python:
Introduction to Python: Gain a solid understanding of Python’s history, features, and the reasons why it has become one of the most popular programming languages today. Learn about Python’s philosophy of code readability, its extensive standard library, and the thriving Python community.
Installing Python: Follow step-by-step instructions to install Python on your system or server. Understand the different versions of Python and the available options for installation, including package managers and integrated development environments (IDEs). Learn how to set up your development environment for Python.
Python Syntax and Basic Concepts: Dive into the fundamentals of Python syntax and basic concepts. Learn about variables, data types, operators, control flow statements (if-else, loops), functions, and modules. Understand how to write clean and efficient Python code using best practices and coding conventions.
Data Structures: Explore Python’s built-in data structures, including lists, tuples, dictionaries, and sets. Learn how to manipulate and iterate over these data structures, perform common operations, and leverage their unique features. Understand when and how to choose the appropriate data structure for your application needs.
File Handling and Input/Output: Learn how to read from and write to files using Python’s file handling capabilities. Understand how to open, read, write, and close files. Explore techniques for processing text and binary data, working with CSV and JSON files, and handling exceptions during file operations.
Object-Oriented Programming (OOP): Discover the principles of object-oriented programming and how they apply to Python. Learn about classes, objects, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. Understand how to design and implement object-oriented solutions using Python’s OOP features.
Python Modules and Packages: Explore Python’s module system and package management. Learn how to organize your code into reusable modules and packages for better code organization and modularity. Understand how to import and use external modules and explore popular Python libraries for various domains.
Python Standard Library: Discover the extensive Python Standard Library, which provides a wide range of modules for tasks such as working with dates and times, network communication, data serialization, regular expressions, and more. Learn how to leverage these modules to speed up your development process.
Error Handling and Exceptions: Understand how to handle errors and exceptions in Python. Learn about the try-except-else-finally construct to gracefully handle and recover from exceptions. Explore techniques for logging and debugging to troubleshoot issues in your Python programs.
Python for Web Development, Data Science, and Automation: Explore Python’s versatility and its applications in web development, data science, and automation. Learn about popular frameworks and libraries such as Django, Flask, NumPy, pandas, and more. Understand how to use Python for web development, data analysis, machine learning, and task automation.
Throughout this tutorial, we provide practical examples, code snippets, and exercises to help you grasp Python’s concepts and master the language. We aim to empower you with the knowledge and skills to become a proficient Python programmer, enabling you to build a wide range of applications and solve real-world problems.
Chapter 1 : Getting Started with Python Programming
In this section you will learn about getting started with Python programming.
You will see what is Python? What is it used for? How do you install Python? How do you use Python?
|Introduction to Python|
|Setting Up the Python Environment|
|Your First Python Program|
|Python Syntax and Indentation|
|Understanding Python Variables and Data Types|
|Basic Python Operators|
|Python Interactive Shell vs Script Mode|
Chapter 2 : Python Fundamentals
This section introduces you to the fundamentals of Python programming.
Here you will learn about syntax, number, string, variables, data types, constant, Booleans, comments, type conversion, Operators, etc.
|Python Data Types Detailed|
|Working with Strings|
|Basic Number Operations|
|Understanding Boolean Logic in Python|
|Python Input and Output|
|Basic Error Handling|
Chapter 3 : Python – Control Flow
Control flow is one of the most important aspects of any programming language.
In Python, control flow is handled by if-else statements, while loops, for loops, break, continue, return, pass, raise, try, except, finally, yield, and more.
|Understanding If, Elif, and Else|
|Using For Loops in Python|
|Mastering While Loops|
|Break and Continue Statements|
|Nested Loops and Loop Control|
Chapter 4 : Python – Functions
Functions are blocks of code that can be reused across different parts of your program. They are also known as subroutines or methods.
In this section, you will learn everything about python functions, How to create?, How to use?, etc.
|Defining and Calling Functions|
|Arguments and Return Values|
|Default and Keyword Arguments|
|Variable Scope and Lifetime|
|Understanding Iterators and Generators|
Chapter 5 : Python – Lists & Directories
Lists are containers which store elements. The elements stored in lists may be strings, numbers, tuples, dictionaries, sets, etc.
You will learn all about list operations like append(), insert(), remove(), sort(), reverse(), find() and many others.
Also, you will learn about directories and their usage.
|Working with Lists|
|Introduction to Dictionaries|
|Iterating over Lists and Dictionaries|
Chapter 6 : Python – Sets
Sets are collections of unique items. They are similar to arrays but they don’t have fixed size.
You will understand set operations like union(), intersection(), difference(), symmetric difference(), complement(), power set(), etc.
Also, you will learn about set comprehension.
|Set Operations and Methods|
|Introduction to Tuples|
|Comparing Lists, Sets, and Tuples|
Chapter 7 : Python – Exception Handling
Exceptions are errors that occur during execution of programs. These errors are usually caused due to bugs in the code.
You will know about exceptions like TypeError, NameError, IndexError, ValueError, OverflowError, ArithmeticError, MemoryError, SyntaxError, IndentationError, UnicodeEncodeError, UnicodeDecodeError, AttributeError, IOError, EOFError, EnvironmentError, ImportError, SystemExit, GeneratorExit, KeyboardInterrupt, RuntimeError, and so on.
You will also learn how to handle these exceptions using try/except statement.
|Basics of Exception Handling|
|The Try-Except Block|
|Handling Multiple Exceptions|
|The Finally Clause|
|Creating Custom Exceptions|
Chapter 8 : Python – Working with Files
Working with files is very easy in Python. It has built-in support for reading and writing text files. Also, there are modules available to read binary files.
You will get to know about file handling operations like open(), close(), write(), read(), seek(), tell(), truncate(), flush(), close(), etc.
|Reading and Writing Files|
|Working with Different File Formats (Text, CSV, JSON)|
|File Handling Best Practices|
|Understanding File Paths and Directories|
|Advanced File Operations|
Chapter 9 : Python OOP – Classes and Objects
Object oriented programming (OOP) is a paradigm where objects interact with each other through inheritance and polymorphism.
You will learn classes and objects in Python. You will learn about object creation, attributes, methods, class hierarchy, superclass and subclass relationship, etc.
|Introduction to Object-Oriented Programming|
|Defining Classes and Objects|
|Understanding the Constructor (|
|Instance Methods and Attributes|
|Class Methods and Static Methods|
Chapter 10 : Python OOP – Special Methods and Property
Special methods and properties are used to access private members of an object.
You will see special methods like __init__(), __repr__(), __str__(), __add__(), __sub__(), __mul__(), __div__(), __truediv__(), __floordiv__(), __mod__(), __pow__(), __and__(), __or__(), __xor__(), __pos__(), __neg__(), __nonzero__(), __len__(), __getitem__(), __setitem__(), __delitem__(), __contains__(), __iter__(), __eq__(), __ne__(), __lt__(), __gt__(), __le__(), __ge__(), __cmp__(), __hash__(), __reduce__(), __format__(), __dir__(), __doc__(), __name__(), __package__(), __module__(), __loader__(), __annotations__(), __dict__(), __weakref__().
You will also learn property related topics like attribute lookup, descriptor protocol, property decorator, etc.
|Special (Magic/Dunder) Methods|
|Property Decorators – Getters and Setters|
Chapter 11 : Python OOP – Inheritance and Enumeration
Inheritance is one of the most important concepts in OOP. In this section, you will learn about inheritance in Python. You will also learn about enumeration.
You will be able to create your own classes by inheriting from existing ones. You will also learn how to use multiple inheritance.
|Base Classes and Derived Classes|
|Multiple Inheritance and the Diamond Problem|
Chapter 12 : Python OOP – Descriptor, Metaprogramming, and Exceptions
Descriptors are used to define custom behavior for a class or instance. They can be defined at class level or instance level.
Metaprogramming is the process of creating new functionality without modifying source code. This is done by manipulating program data structures instead of their representation.
You will be introduced to metaclasses and descriptors in Python. You will be taught about exception handling in Python.
|Introduction to Metaprogramming|
|Metaclasses and Their Use Cases|
|Advanced Exception Handling Techniques|
|Custom Exception Classes|
Chapter 13 : Python for Advance Programmer
In this section you will learn advance techniques and methods in python to become an advance programmer.
You will learn advanced features of python such as generators, list comprehensions, generator expressions, map() function, filter() function, reduce() function, zip() function, iter tools module, lambda functions, operator overloading, dynamic typing, duck typing, etc.
You will understand how to use them effectively in real world applications.
|Advanced List and Dictionary Comprehensions|
|Decorators and Higher-Order Functions|
|Context Managers and the |
|Coroutines and Async Programming|
Chapter 14 : Python Regex
Regex is a powerful tool that helps us to find patterns in strings. It is very useful when we need to search for patterns in text files or web pages.
You will get to know about regular expression syntax, different types of regex engines, basic usage of re module, using re.compile() method, matching groups, capturing groups, named groups, lookahead assertions, lookbehind assertions, quantifiers, back references, character sets, Unicode support, etc.
This section will help you to write robust and efficient programs.
|Introduction to Regular Expressions|
|Basic Patterns and Character Classes|
|Grouping and Capturing|
|Advanced Regex Features|
|Practical Use Cases of Regex in Python|
Chapter 15 : Python Unit Testing
Unit testing is a technique which allows us to test individual units of our software independently. You can run unit tests on each file separately.
You can execute unit tests with various parameters and assert if they pass or fail.
You will learn about unit test module, nose framework, pytest framework, mock objects, patch object, etc.
|Introduction to Unit Testing in Python|
|Writing Test Cases using |
|Test Case Organization and Execution|
|Introduction to |
|Mocking and Patching in Tests|
FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is Python and why should I learn it?
Python is a high-level, interpreted programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It’s versatile, widely used in various fields like web development, data science, artificial intelligence, and more. Learning Python opens up numerous opportunities in the tech industry.
Do I need any prior programming experience to start learning Python?
No, Python is beginner-friendly and can be an excellent starting point for those new to programming. Its syntax is clear and easy to understand.
What software do I need to start coding in Python?
You need to install Python, which is available on its official website. Additionally, an integrated development environment (IDE) like PyCharm or a simple text editor like VSCode can be helpful.
Is Python free to use?
Yes, Python is an open-source programming language, which means it is free to use, modify, and distribute.
Can Python be used for web development?
Absolutely. Python has frameworks like Django and Flask that are specifically designed for web development.
How is Python used in data science?
Python has many libraries such as Pandas, NumPy, and SciPy that are widely used in data manipulation, statistical analysis, and machine learning.
What are the differences between Python 2 and Python 3?
Python 3 is the latest version and has several improvements over Python 2, including better syntax, improved integer division, and Unicode support. Python 2 is no longer maintained.
How long will it take to learn Python?
It varies depending on your prior experience and how much time you dedicate. Generally, a basic understanding can be achieved in a few weeks, but mastering Python takes longer.
What is a Python library?
A Python library is a collection of modules and packages that help in adding functionality without writing your code. Libraries like NumPy and TensorFlow provide pre-written code for various tasks.
What is object-oriented programming (OOP) in Python?
OOP in Python is a programming paradigm that uses objects and classes. It helps in structuring code in a reusable and modular way.
Are there any online communities or forums for Python learners?
Yes, communities like Stack Overflow, Reddit’s r/learnpython, and Python.org’s mailing lists are great for learning and discussing Python.
What are decorators in Python?
Decorators are a significant aspect of Python that allows the modification of functions or methods using other functions, enhancing their functionality.
Can I build mobile apps with Python?
Yes, frameworks like Kivy and BeeWare allow for the development of mobile apps using Python.
What is a Python framework?
A Python framework is a collection of packages and modules that allow developers to write web applications without needing to handle low-level details like sockets, protocols, etc.
How do I keep up with Python updates and news?
Following Python’s official website, subscribing to Python-related newsletters, or being part of Python communities can keep you updated.
Is Python suitable for building large-scale applications?
Yes, Python is scalable and used by many large-scale applications and companies. Its robust libraries and frameworks make it suitable for complex applications.
What are Python’s limitations?
Python’s slower execution speed compared to languages like C or Java can be a limitation, especially for performance-intensive applications. However, this is often mitigated by its advantages in other areas.